The evaluation of change:
The role of evaluation in the curriculum renewal process

Appendix 2:

Four Twentieth Century Theoretical Models of Curricular Change

Tyler's four-stage progesssion model (1949)

1. Objectives: What educational purpose should the school seek to attain?

2. Content: What educational experiences can be provided that are likely to attain the objectives?

3. Organization: How can these educatioanl experiences be effectively organised?

4. Evaluation: How can it be determined whether the objectives are being attained?

Tyler's Basic principles of Curriculm & Instruction was regarded by many educators as the early bible of curriculm design. In it, he provided a workable model for the systematic development of curriculla. However, it was criticised as being an archetypal 'ballistic' model; that is, curriculum development activity occurs in a linear series of sequential stages. Also, it was criticised as representing an "ends-means" view of education.

Taba's model (1962)

Step 1: diagnosis of needs

Step 2: formulation of objectives

Step 3: selection of content

Step 4: organisation of content

Step 5: selection of learning experiences

Step 6: organisation of learning expereinces

Step 7: determination of what to evaluate & means to evaluate
In this early standard model of the curriculum process, there is a sytematic movement through a series of set steps. However, its rigidity is its chief weakness.

This "means-ends" or objective model has proved a popular framework for developing lanaguge curricula programs, given that teaching itself is usually seen in these terms. This model is often referred to as the Rational Planning Model because it is "rational" to the specify ends before engaging in any given activity.

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A hybrid Taba-Tyler model (19**)

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Nunan's model (1985)

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