Shikata emphasized that English is a communication tool not a subject that makes pupils feel daunted. Many of the pupils she teaches at elementary schools are afraid of making mistakes when they speak and want to confirm whether their English is accurate or free from errors before they actually speak. Homeroom teachers also have little confidence in speaking English. Classroom activities she introduced such as Bongo, Dobon game, and Keyword game are simple, enjoyable, and the targets attainable. Those activities are also easy for homeroom teachers alone to conduct and continue with little or no help from Japanese Teachers of English (JTE) or Assistant Language Teachers (ALT). Crowe first introduced high-frequecy words in children's books based on the Dolch word list (Non-nouns for Pre-primer). Then he asked the audience how naturally those words such as "a,""away,""come,""make,"and "where" should be exposed to children. He led the audience to an imaginative birthday-party play based on a storybook he wrote, where such high-frequency words naturally appear and spontaneous responses naturally occur. By repetitively performing the play, children remember the story line with high-frequency words and they engage themselves in learning activities with a teacher as a facilitator.