In this presentation, I will first introduce the concept of willingness to communicate (WTC) as a psychological construct used to investigate individual differences in L2 communication along with motivation, anxiety, and self-confidence. Next, I will introduce a number of recent studies that explore the situated nature of WTC as emerging in language classrooms through the interaction of various individual, social, and contextual factors. I will then discuss the characteristics of the L2 communication behaviors of Japanese learners as phenomena that are both culturally constructed and dynamically emergent. Finally. I will explore teaching interventions that can enhance learners’ WTC.